Biotechnological Advances in the Development of Oral Vaccines: A New Era in Immunization

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Girish R. Pathade, Jayant R. Pawar, Aishwarya D.Jagtap


Oral vaccines represent a promising avenue for immunization, offering numerous advantages such as ease of administration, improved patient compliance, and potential cost-effectiveness. Biotechnological advancements have significantly contributed to the development of oral vaccines, paving the way for a new era in immunization. This paper reviews the latest biotechnological innovations driving the formulation, delivery, and efficacy of oral vaccines. Key topics include the use of live attenuated and subunit vaccines, antigen encapsulation techniques, mucosal adjuvants, and novel delivery systems such as nanoparticles and microparticles. Additionally, the challenges and future directions in the field of oral vaccine development are discussed, highlighting the potential for biotechnology to revolutionize global vaccination strategies.

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