Chemical Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Ganga River

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Krishna Anand
Prof. V. K. Singh
Prof. Raj Kumar


To investigate the levels and distribution of PAHs in the Ganga River, employing advanced chemical analysis techniques. The Ganga River water was collected from Haridwar and a comprehensive chemical analysis of PAHs in water samples from the Ganga River was conducted using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Analysis (FTIR). In Haridwar, petrogenic PAHs exhibit seasonal variations in concentration. Naphthalene peaks during the monsoon at 13.35 µg/l, whereas premonsoon and post-monsoon levels are 5.325 µg/l and 1.25 µg/l, respectively. Acenaphthylene reaches its highest concentration of 2.725 µg/l in the pre-monsoon season, decreases to 1.0625 µg/l during the monsoon, and rises again to 2.385 µg/l post-monsoon. Fluorene peaks at 3.25 µg/l post-monsoon, decreases to 0.985 µg/l during the monsoon, and rises to 2.2125 µg/l pre-monsoon. Phenanthrene levels range from 0.9075 µg/l to 1.1625 µg/l across seasons. Dibenzothiophene shows fluctuations, ranging from 0.6575 ng/l to 4.605 ng/l. The research demonstrates that there are fluctuations in the levels of petrogenic PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the Ganga River at Haridwar, with significant increases in the concentrations of naphthalene, acenaphthylene, fluorene, and phenanthrene over various seasons. The variations in levels demonstrate the influence of human activities on the presence of PAH pollution in this significant river in India.

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